This database aims to be a component of a larger one: A national Coleoptera diversity database in Togo. Indeed, like other African countries, various ecosystems of Togo, such as forests and wetlands, are undergoing intensive degradation due to agricultural practices and rapid population growth (UICN/PACO 2008). The loss of biodiversity associated with ecosystem degradation and habitat destruction, especially in insects is well documented (Ehrlich 1988, Lugo 1988, Samways 1994, Turner 1996, Erwin 1997, Orgeas and Ponel 2001). This is the case of the Missahoe Classified Forest (FCM) located in Kloto prefecture where the most of the Coleoptera specimens constituting this dataset were collected. Due to its immense entomological diversity, this forest has been a modelsinces the 1980’ for entomology and ethnobiology research for scholars in Togo and other researchers in West African and Northern region. For instance, Milan (2011) compiled a catalog of 269 species of Rhopalocera Lepidoptera during a mission in the FCM and the Museum of IITA (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture) in Cotonou-Benin included specimens of insects collected in this forest (Curletti and Goergen 2011). Unfortunately, in the early 1990s, intensive hunting for purposes of national and especially international trade of Lepidoptera, Phasmoptera and Coleoptera (MERF/PNUD 2010) threatened these groups and affected a large food web (Klimaszewski 2000). Besides the effects on species populations and ecosystems, human populations in the region are affected in other ways, as insects in general occupy an important place in their health, socio-cultural, artistic and aesthetic activities (Van Huis 1996, 2003a, 2003b). Indeed, this dataset contains records of pests and species used as food by various ethnic groups in Togo. Among the stock pest, the following species can be cited: Callosobruchus maculatus F., Callosobruchus rhodesianus P. and Bruchidius atrolineatus P. of Chrysomelidae family (Giga and Smith 1987, Glitho 1990, Ketoh et al. 2000, 2002, Amevoin et al. 2006, Doumma et al. 2011) are associated with cowpea, Vigna ungucilata L. (Fabaceae). Prostephanus truncatus H. (Bostrichidae), an invasive species, constuting serious pest of stored maize and cassava that was introduced in Togo in 1980 (Hodges 1994, Mendiola-Olaya et al. 2000, Tyler and Hodges 2002, Muatinte et al. 2014); Sternochetus mangiferae F. (Curculionidae), develops mainly on mango and constitutes a species of quarantine in the countries where it is absent (Follett 2002, De Roffignac et al. 2007, Louw 2010, Muriuki 2011, OEPP/EPPO 2011, CABI 2017); and Apate monachus F. (Bostrichidae), attacks coffee tree, Coffea liberica W. Bull ex Hiern (Rubiaceae), aged 4 to 5 years and digs galleries in the lower half of the trunk (D’Aguilar et al. 1962). With regard to edible insects, species belonging to Buprestidae (Sternocera interrupta Olivier), Curculionidae (Rhynchophorus phoenicis Fabricius), Cerambycidae (Petrognatha gigas Fabricius), Dytiscidae (Cybister tripunctatus Olivier, Cybister senegalensis Aubé) and Scarabaeidae families (Oryctes monoceros Olivier, Heteroligus meles Billberg, Augosoma centaurus Fabricius, Pachnoda cordata Drury, Gnathocera trivittata Swederus) (Van Huis 2003b, Agbidye et al. 2009, Badanaro 2015, Kelemu et al. 2015, Kumar et al. 2017) can be mentioned. In addition, there is very few online data on Coleoptera in the West African region (Figure 1). Currently, the largest dataset is contributed by the « Denver Museum of Nature & Science ». However, despite its size, all its recods come from a few localities of Ivory Coast (6,174 occurrences), and more than 90% of these belongs to just four species in the Scarabaeidae family. Given this striking lack of data on Coleoptera in this area, our dataset contributes significatively to a better knowledge of these insects (Togo in Figure 1). The present dataset specifically: (1) provides label data of the Coleoptera specimens kept at the Insect Collection of LEA; (2) allows to follow up the population dynamics of these species in time and space at national level for their conservation, and (3) contributes to knowledge of their distribution according to the different agro-ecological zones in West Africa, setting a baseline for future ecological studies.
The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 3,870 records.
This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.
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Researchers should cite this work as follows:
Radji R, Gomina M (2020): Coleoptera of Togo: data of the LEA Insect Collection of the University of Lome. v1.4. Université de Lomé. Dataset/Occurrence. http://ipt-togo.gbif.fr/resource?r=coleoptera&v=1.4
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The publisher and rights holder of this work is Université de Lomé. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.
This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: 38fdd8b7-4e48-452c-8c05-673e6f6829af. Université de Lomé publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by GBIF Togo.
Occurrence; Biodiversity; Classified Forest; Coleoptera; Collection of Insects; Dataset; FDS; LEA; Missahoe; Scarabaeidae; Specimens; Taxa; Togo; University of Lome.; Specimen
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The different specimens of Coleoptera composing this dataset were sampled in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems of the 5 ecological zones of Togo. In fact, 63.92% of the specimens representing 1,237 occurrences of the dataset come from the ecological zone IV, particularly from the FCM. Then, Lome and its peripheries (Agoe, Agbalepedo) located in ecological zone V, recorded secondly the maximum of occurrences (428 or 22.11%). Finally, in ecological zones II, III and I the maximum number of specimens was collected respectively in Kpewa, Atakpame and Sibortoti with respectively 5.37 (104 occurrences), 0.82 (16 occurrences) and 0.72% (14 occurrences) of 1,935 specimens collected.
|Bounding Coordinates||South West [6.097, -0.088], North East [11.372, 1.846]|
Of the 319 Coleoptera taxa collected, 184 were identified up to the species level, and 69 to genus; thanks to specialists from IITA Museum in Cotonou-Benin and the Royal Museum of Central Africa (RMCA) in Tervuren, Belgium. According to Figure 6, the families of Scarabaeidae and Cerambycidae are the most abundant in the collection with respectively 31.35 and 21.94%. Similarly, the Scarabaeidae family is the most diverse (90 species) followed by that of Cerambycidae (55 species) (Table 1 and Annex 1).
|Family||Cicindelidae, Carabidae, Histeridae, Lycidae, Meloidae, Elateridae, Buprestidae, Erotylidae, Cleridae, Coccinellidae, Tenebrionidae, Lagriidae, Bostrichidae, Curculionidae, Passalidae, Lucanidae, Melyridae, Lampyridae, Chrysomelidae, Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae, Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae, Staphylinidae|
|Living Time Period||1990-2013|
That of "Participatory management plan of the natural forest massifs: case of the Missahoe Classified Forest" covers 2010-2020 and is funded by UNDP/MERF (United Nations Development Program/Ministry of the Environment and Forestry Resources). Its goal was to develop a comprehensive document for participatory planning of FCM with the support of a short, medium and long-term action program. During the implementation of these two projects in the FCM, the Laboratory of Applied Entomology (LEA) was requested to assess the biodiversity of the entomofauna between 2010 and 2011. In addition, the University of Lome provided financial support to the LEA for the sampling of insects in the FCM in 2005. Apart from these sampling carried out by the laboratory, students in the Mastery level in the Department of Zoology and Animal Biology (during the period 2004-2008), have deposited in the LEA specimens from various localities throughout the country (Lome , Amakpave, Kolokope, Sokode, Kante Tchamba, Dapaong, ....) (Figure 2), after their initiation to insect collection and conservation techniques. Teachers and technicians from this department also captured and convoying specimens to the LEA. BID project (BID-AF2015-0004-NAC) allows to LEA to capture data collected in the project and to use them publishing data paper.
|Title||Support for the sustainable management of entomofauna in the Kloto region (Togo)" and "Participatory management plan of the natural forest massifs: case of the Missahoe classified forest"|
|Funding||The project "Support for the sustainable management of entomofauna in the Kloto region (Togo)" covered the period 2010-2012 and was funded by IUCN-PPI (International Union for the Conservation of Nature-Small Initiatives Programs). It was implemented by the NGO "Les compagnons ruraux". Given the degradation of the entomofauna in the Missahoe Classified Forest (FCM) located in ecological zone IV (Ern 1979), the objectifs of this project were (1) to promote innovative techniques for the conservation of the entomofauna of this forest and (2) strengthen an ecological awareness in order to better take into account the issues of protection of the entomofauna and natural resources of this forest.|
|Study Area Description||The majority of these collections (1237 specimens or about 64%) were collected in the FCM where the different projects were implemented to assess its exceptional extreme biodiversity, which is degrading under pressure. This forest, located southwest of ecological zone IV (Figure 2), corresponds to the southern zone of the Togo Mountains and constitutes the actual domain of true dense semi-deciduous forests (Ern 1979, Brunel et al. 1984, MERF 2003, Dourma et al. 2006, Kokou et al. 1999a, 2006, Atato et al. 2010, 2012). With an area of 1057 ha, the FCM is located 5 km northwest of Kpalime and is 110 km northwest of Lome. The climate of this zone is of the subequatorial type marked by a rainy season (March-November) and a dry season (December-February). Thermal averages during the year vary between 21 and 26°C. The hottest months of the year are from January to April and the coolest are from July to September. The relative humidity linked to the existence of forests is a moderating aspect of the ambient heat. Average annual rainfall totals are around 1800 mm. The rest of the specimens of the collection were collected mainly by students, technicians and teachers of the Department of Zoology, and come from the localities of the ecological zones I, II, III and V of Togo (Figure 2). Additional specimens come from insect sampling educational outings organized by the LEA in the Botanical Garden (tree area) of the University of Lome where a project to monitor its entomofauna is underway. Ecological zone I is the northern plains area and is dominated mainly by soudanian savannas (Adjonou et al. 2009, Kokou et al. 1999a, 2006, Atato et al. 2010, 2012); while ecological zone II corresponds to the northern branch of the mountains of Togo and constitutes the area of savannah-forest mosaics at Isoberlinia doka and dry dense forests (Kokou et al. 1999a, Dourma et al. 2006, 2009, 2012, Atato et al. 2010, 2012, Woegan et al. 2013). As for the ecological zone III, it extends over the whole plain of the center and is characterized by a Guinean savanna interrupted by vast expanses of dry forests (Kokou et al. 1999a, Adjonou et al. 2010, Dourma et al. 2006, 2009, 2012, Atato et al. 2010, 2012). Ecological zone V (Kokou et al. 1999a, 1999b, 2000, 2006, Dourma et al. 2006, Atato et al. 2010, 2012) represents the coastal plain (at the extreme south of the country) and presents very degraded vegetation formations that are: a mosaic of disparate forest patches, highly anthropized savannahs, coastal thickets, halophilic or marshy grasslands, mangroves, fallows and crops. Ecological zones I and III generally have a tropical climate; while that of ecological zone II is of the Sudano-Guinean type (Kokou et al. 2000, 2006). As for the ecological zone V, it presents a tropical climate of Guinean type.|
|Design Description||A number of activities and initiatives have been put in place towards the general objective of improving the knowledge on the Togolese entomofauna in relation to its biotope for science and conservation. One of the most important activities was the establishment of the Insect Collection of LEA. Its establishment was made possible by insect captures and their conservation in entomological boxes, using standard methods described by Martin (1983), Franck (2008), Nageleisen and Bouget (2009). The identification of these specimens was done by specialists. When entering data in Darwin Core columns, the following parameters related to the specimens were taken into account: biotope, date of capture, locality, method of capture, the name of the collector. The next step was to make this information available online through GBIF Togo (Figures 3, 4, 5).|
The personnel involved in the project:
Sampling of insect specimens took place as follows: 1. Coleoptera specimens sampling A combination of several active and passive methods has been used to increase the chances of catching Coleoptera species. These methods are: threshing, hunting by sight, trapping, fruit incubation, rearing and collection by the strainer. 1.1. Threshing, hunting and trapping Threshing, hunting and trapping (Franck 2008, Nageleisen and Bouget 2009) were used at the level of transects in the FCM and the Botanical Garden of the University of Lome, where field trips were organized. Threshing has been done in some trees. As for hunting by sight, according to Martin (1983), it makes it possible to detect trophic links between the species. This active hunting at sight with sweep nets, pliers, knives, machetes or even the hand, was made along the transects where the vegetation was studied thanks to a botanist of the Laboratory of Botany and Plant Ecology at the University of Lome. The stems and foliage of the plants were scanned and searched to detect and capture Coleoptera adults. Similarly, various active and/or passive traps were used: - aerial traps hanging on trees and baited; - fluorescent ultraviolet light traps placed above a sheet (night hunting). Specimens of insects captured by the various methods were anesthetized with ethyl acetate in jars. These will be sorted per trap type or capture method. 1.2. Incubation of fruits Incubation of various fruits made for the purpose of inventorying fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Vayssières et al. 2004, 2010a, 2010b, Gomina et al. 2012, 2014, Gomina 2015); allowed to sample some beetles. This is the example of S. mangiferae obtained from the incubation of mangoes and whose larvae develop in the nucleus of this fruit (De Roffignac et al. 2007, CABI, 2017). 1.3. Rearing The specimens of bruchts were obtained by raising them on cowpea (Ketoh et al. 2000, 2002, Amevoin et al. 2006, Doumma et al. 2011). 1.4. Sampling by the strainer The use of the strainer for the sampling of beetle specimens has been done in the wetlands, in this case in the ponds and lagoon of Be of Lome.
|Study Extent||The dataset described in this article consists exclusively of insect samples collected between 1990 and 2013 in various locations in the 5 ecological zones of Togo. Nearly half of this collection (47.39%) comes from the southwestern part of ecological zone IV and dates from 2005 while about 16% of the specimens were collected in 2001.|
|Quality Control||The quality of the data is taken into account by the various sampling methods (Martin 1983, Vayssières et al. 2004, Amevoin et al. 2006, Franck 2008, Nageleisen and Bouget, 2009), mounting and conservation. (Perron, 1993; Franck, 2008) of the different Coleoptera specimens constituting this dataset. Similarly, rigorous identification of samples using Lepesme (1953), Allard (1985, 1986), Delvare and Aberlenc (1989), Rigout (1989), Allard (1991, 1993), Rigout and Allard (1992), Robiche et al. (2002) and especially the expertise of specialists in the field at the IITA Museum and the “Royal Museum of Central Africa” have allowed the reliable identification of the various specimens collected. The precise coordinates of sampling sites of all the specimens (1,237 specimens or about 63.92%) from the Missahoe Classified Forest were replaced by that of the localities because these specimens are threatened through their anarchic hunting for trade (MERF/PNUD 2010). Likewise, the rest of the specimens collected by students, technicians and teachers were kept at the laboratory under the name of the sampling localities without the respectives coordinates. The coordinates of localities were obtained by using GPS "eTrex® 10, Garmin". Then the map (Figure 2) was obtained by projecting these coordinates on a georeferenced map of the ecological zones of Togo with ArcGIS Software (ESRI 2014). When entering data into an Excel file, the names of the genera and species of the specimens and the names of the authors who identified them were verified online (http://www.google.com).|
Method step description:
- After the capture (see detail under section "Sampling description") of the specimens in the field, several steps were followed and allowed to obtain "Darwin Core Archive" from this dataset. 1. Preparation of captured insect species Only one sample at a time per station and per trap type or method of hunting was processed to avoid cross-contamination of samples and labeling problems of specimens. All individuals of different species were prepared (mounted) and keep in entomological boxes after oven drying for identification (Perron 1993, Franck 2008). 2. Identification of insect species The families of the various specimens were identified in the LEA using the keys of Delvare and Aberlenc (1989). The identification of samples up to the genus and species was done at the IITA Museum by comparison of the preserved specimens and in consulting Lepesme (1953), Allard (1985, 1986), Rigout (1989), Allard (1991, 1993), Rigout and Allard (1992), Robiche et al. (2002). Specimens that could not be identified at IITA were determined at the Royal Museum of Central Africa (RMCA) in Tervuren, Belgium. 3. Dataset and dataset publication The raw data of the species identified concerning the biotope, the season and date of capture, the number of individuals caught per species and per a given capture method, the collector(s) were taken into account during setting up this dataset. After entering these data in an "Excel" file taking into account "Darwin Core Terms", the resulting file was converted to a "Text" format file and subsequently cleaned using OpenRefine software. After cleaning the file, it was saved in "tsv" format before being imported into the IPT (Integrated Publishing Toolkit) of the GBIF-Togo Node hosted by GBIF France. Finally, after the Metadata Mapping and their publication on the IPT, the file "Darwin Core Archive" was generated.
|Collection Name||Coleoptera collection|
|Parent Collection Identifier||Insect collection of Laboratory of Applied Entomology|
|Specimen preservation methods||Dried|
|Curatorial Units||Between 1 and 120 unity|